Rafael Lozano-Hemmer

*Method Random*, 2014

Chromogenic prints on Kodak Endura paper

32.2 x 55.2 in / 82 x 140 cm

Edition of 3

*Method Random*is a series of chromogenic prints that have been generated by computational methods that attempt to create randomness. Random number generators (RNG) are essential algorithms for a large number of applications from encryption and security to simulation, jury selection, double-blind trials, statistical sampling, game theory and many others. While the sum of all colours picked by different RNG algorithms generates a neutral gray, patterns can be discerned when massive number of pixels can be seen simultaneously. These prints show how human perception of organization can often spot the fundamental difficulty for computers to appear unpredictable.

The nine algorithms chosen are as follows:

1. Image generated with a seed of 5970917 using an LCG algorithm with a=22695477, c=1, and m=2^32. The same algorithm used by Borland C/C++, except with using the least significant 24bits.

2. Image generated with a seed of 5972092 using an XORSHIFT with an l,r,l shifting pattern and a=1, b=3, and c=11 (instead of 10), using the least significant 24bits

3. Image was generated with RANDU with a seed of 9830209, using the least significant 24bits. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RANDU)

4. Image was generated with RANDU with a seed of 271828, using the most significant 24bits. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RANDU)

5. Image was generated with a seed of 1967 using an LCG algorithm with a=833, c=3927 and m=2^32. Using bits [6..30]

6. Image was generated with a seed of 1985 using a quadratic equation of the form y = ax^2 + bx +c with a=124,b=909, c=751 and m=2^32. Using bits [6..30]

7. Image was generated with a seed of 8333927 using x_{i+1} = roundleft(frac{x_i}{sqrt{x_i}} ight) +19671985. Using the least significant 24 bits

8. Image was generated with a seed of 7071067 using seed = (161803398*seed)+ seed. Using the least significant 24 bits

9. Image was generated with a seed of 14142135 using a quadratic equation of the form y = ax^2 – bx +c with a=132471, b=2584981, c=22958 and m=2^32. Using the most significant 24 bits.